The zero-emission electric car is a vehicle that produces no pollution. However, this can only be true if it’s just looking at tailpipe emissions. It doesn’t take into account the whole product cycle. Not from cradleto grave but from cradleto cradle, including manufacturing and recycling.
The manufacturing of batteries requires a lot of energy and there is not yet an infrastructure for recycling used (EV) batteries. The power source for charging an EV is an important consideration. Additionally, aluminium is more energy-intensive than steel to produce and can be recycled. Plastics can also be used as fuel, but are cheaper than recycled plastic.
Multifaceted solutions are more effective than single-source solutions for any problem. Problems can be difficult to find or ignored because they don’t make a profit. There are also conflicts between corporate capabilities and government mandates.
You don’t need to know how to make internal combustion engine or optimize them.