At a lecture, someone asked the same question. Prof Aidan from University of Glasgow provided the following explanation. Let’s divide it into three parts. The first 1/3rd will be where you’ll strike. The 2nd 1/3rd of the area is covered with a wooden plank, while the last 1/3rd is left unfinished.
Let’s say we take three balls, and attach them to the table as a closed triangle. Let’s say that we call people and ask them to guess the shape of the object underneath the plank.
This is best done by using the cue to strike at the hidden object at different angles and points. We will be able determine what lies beneath the plank with every strike. This is based on whether or not the white ball passes through, and if so, at what angle.
If the white ball is smaller that the balls under the table, then we can understand the gaps between them and eventually, with many data points, understand their exact structure.
These experiments were conducted using a proton (in LHC), and revealed the quark structure. It also shows that electrons are not composed of smaller particles.
This was a clipping of a video. This is all I can do to explain it. If it isn’t clear, ask me.