How does a shared electron revolve during covalent bonding?

First, the traditional picture of electron orbits around a nucleus is incorrect. Bohr’s model of the Atom only includes one quantum number, the integer N that appears in the expression to calculate the electron’s energy in an orbit. Modern atomists don’t see electrons orbiting nucleus in well-defined orbits. This is the same way that planets orbit the Sun. The nucleus is now surrounded by electron clouds. Therefore, the orbitals are not well-defined. However, we still consider the Bohr theory useful because it provides the correct answer to the question about the energy of electron orbitals.

Let’s get back to the original question.

The linear combination of atomic orbitals is used in molecular orbital theory (MO).

(LCAO) is a symbol for molecular orbitals resulting in bonds between atoms. These can be divided into anti-bonding orbitals and bonding orbitals. non-bonding orbitals

. A bonding orbital focuses electron density in the region between two given pairs of atoms. This electron density will attract each nuclei towards the other and keep the two atoms connected.

An anti-bonding orbital

Concentrating electron density “behind” each nucleus (i.e. Concentrating electron density “behind” each nucleus (i.e., on the side closest to the other atom) tends to pull the nuclei apart and weaken the bonds between them. Non-bonding orbitals are associated with electrons that interact negatively or positively with each other. These orbitals have no electrons, so they do not contribute to nor subtract from bond strength.

Further, atomic orbitals can be further broken down according to their types .

They are made from. If their orbitals have lower energy, chemical substances can form bonding interactions. There are many different bonding orbitals that can be distinguished. electron configuration (electronic cloud shape) and by energy levels .


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