The proton and electron are inextricably linked by virtual photons. The proton is not composed of +1 charge but rather an amalgamation of 3 quark charges 2x +2/3 and 1x -1/3. The virtual photons can’t penetrate the proton’s interior. They must add up the 3 quark charges and determine which virtual photon will shoot back and forth, much like bullets from an automatic machine gun.
Attraction via EM force (focus only on the EM for the moment). Ordiny is the number of superposition options that decreases. This is because virtual photons 1) have masses and cannot travel at the speed light, and 2) their mass energy comes from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle’s time-energy form. (note that I tend to write h-bar as h/2pi explicitly. h/2pi is one quanta that is distributed over its wavelength as an 2-dimensional wavefunction. I’ll be explaining the 2-d aspect shortly.
If we assign c as a “natural number”, it will be assigned a value 1 which means that time = distance. Instead of using delta-t, I prefer working in Planck intervals and Planck lengths. The speed of light can be described as c=1Lp/1tp.
I apologize for all the typos.
Also, delta-t can be written as ntp
the 4 pi represents 2 wavelengths of the 2-dimensional wave function. The 2-d aspect is understood by representing the path of a photon:
a photon corkscrews through space-time. Interestingly, the number of eigenstates of the photon changes with each representation of detecting the photon under different conditions, and none that i have seen are correct.
Mitrovanov established a limit to the Planck angle by setting a ration le/lp where le is the elementary electromagnetic long. [Rees and Ruffini 1974; Black Holes and Gravitational Waves and Cosmology: An Intro to Current Research (Gordon and Breech text; Zeldoch and Novikov 1975; Composition and Evolution of the Universe text (Nauka text]
this represents the number of possible angles in a sphere equal in radius to the cosmos, if two photons are emitted at the center of an aproximated 45 billion (cooving) light year radius, would be 1 Planck length apart at their 45 billin light-year target, and therefore differentiable.
In each red arrow, the corkscrew side of the photon is 2E41 eigenstates. This result is common to all models of bosons. This is because each of the 2E41 angles represents forward motion for the photon over 1 Planck interval (tp). The state in which the state is at each tp has ended. The next tp is not yet available. There is only one available tp, and the previous has ended. The next is not yet here.
this is why we see a 2-d representation of a photon. the sign wall on the left can be thought of as the electric field, the cosine wall on the bottom the magnetic field.
Here’s the fun part: each electric and magnetic fields are mediated through their own virtual photons, which have different virtual masses. (Virtual photons have weight). This is what we call the permitivity constant of the electric field. It is actually the mass the virtual photon mediates. What we measure is the permeability constant of the magnetic field. This is the mass the virtual photon mediates for that field. The velocities for each field are determined according to their mass.
But, no one has ever seen its obviousness for any bizarre reason.
In fact, no one has ever been able to determine the mass of any virtual photon. However, it is possible to reverse engineer the permitivity or permeability constants. Basic algebra and arithmetic.
However, as a massless, real photon moves through space-time, it sprays massive virtual photons to create the electric field and cosine walls on floor. Sign and cosine functions are affected by the difference in mass between these types of virtual photosns. To amplify the signal, ‘phase squeezing” must be used to get them back into phase. LIGO uses phase squeeze to amplify the laser signal at a distance of 4 km to increase the sensivity by two orders of magnitude.
The distance between the electron and the proton can be quantized. Because a virtual photon is only available for a certain number of wavelengths, it cannot be fractionalized. This is why it is important to write 4 pi longhand.
The first Bohr radius measures approximately 60K times that of the proton. A virtual photon can live for 3 wavelengths in a magnetic field medium. The magnetic field does not travel at the speed light and does not extend infinitely. We have not detected a magnetic force from an infinite distance, despite maxwell’s equations. This means that the Bohr radius’s first Bohr radius has a radius about 20K times larger than the radius of a proton.
The electron is located in a distribution superpositions. Therefore, the ‘attraction is’ the decrease in superpostions available, or ordiny. We see this as “repulsion” and entropy would be an increase of the choices of superposition.
Quantization of electron orbital distance is the wavelength of massive virtual photons being exchanged. This limits the number of virtual massive photons available for exchange in order to allow ordiny, attraction, and a decrease in superpositions. While the wavelength can vary, ordiny requires that the quantity remain fixed. This limits the number superpositions available for the electron. Quantity determines the amount we can measure as charge. Because it is fic=xed we consider them equal.
A distribution of superpositions also exists for the massive virtual photon. This is what Feynman & Wheeler were trying to find in the second perturbation of Absorber Theory. It was wrong to consider time continuous and unidirectional rather than as a superposition. I mean that a wave function that is located in a distribution or localities (which it is by definition) is also found in a distribution or superpositions that have gotten it to each superposition of locality. Since velocity is dependent on time, time is also superpositined.
The electron doesn’t ‘possess a negative charge’. [Wheeler John Feynman (1945)]. “Interaction with Absorber as the Mechanism for Radiation.” Review of Modern Physics 17 (2-3): 157-181.Bibcode:1945RvMP…17..157W.doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.17.157.] [Price, Huw (1997-12-04). Archimedes’ Point and Time’s Arrow. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511798-8-0.]
The authors wanted to know why an electron that is negatively charged over every integral of its wave function does not fly apart.
Although some very stupid QFT proposals have been made, they require an infinite field to fit into our finite domain. However, no one has yet answered this question. If the infinite field was truly infinite, then magically Infinitesimal Calculus Axioms would go out of the window, and the resultant phenomenon wouldn’t be infinite. This means that any event occurring in an infinite field would also be infinitesimal.
simply states that according to the axioms of Infinitesimal Calculus, the limit as the field approaches infinity, represented by F, shrinks the virtual particle (or any phenomenon) away to zero, and it does not happen, which dismisses all of QFT.
Repulsion (entropy), occurs when there is an increase in the number of superpositions. This raises the question: Is it an increase in wavelengths of the virtual photons that mediate the finite magnetic field or a decrease in the number of virtual photons?
Our electron quantum leapt to another orbit due to an increase in wavelength. The jump was quantified because the virtual photon must be an integer number. This is also something that nobody has seen.
None of the 4,000,000 papers on the subject have even mentioned any exchange of virtual particles within the electron/proton scenario. This is a very strange thing to me.
We are left with the option that virtual photons increase when an electron sees another one. Why would this be? You look exactly like me so i shoot more bullets at your face.
No. The electron is placed in a superposition distribution, and the virtual photos mediating the force are also superpositioned. Because of this, wave functions overlap so that constructive interference is possible, such as the double-slit experiment. This constructive interference results in more superpositions available, which is what we call entropy and repulsion.
This is because the virtual photons are not unidirectional. They are able to precipitate from the QED vacuum using the HUP, and then recede into the QED vacuum in the same way. In an electron/electron situation, there is no place for the virtual photon, no hole, or sink. This is what is often described but not fully understood.
The bottom line is that neither particle ‘posses’ a charge. Otherwise, it would fall apart. The magnetic field’s virtual photons, which increase or decrease superpositions, mediate charge. This is what we call attraction (ordiny), or repellence (entropy).