# Why do accelerated electrons radiate energy, i.e., in particle accelerators, and do they lose their effective mass as a result?

There are two methods to explain physics questions: the energy method and the force method. Although the force method is intuitive and simple, it is difficult mathematically when there are many particles. Due to the scalar nature energy, which is more detailed than the vector nature forces, the energy method can be used to perform large numbers of interactions.

The force method is the best way to find out the answer. Because of the infinite range of electric force, you can move one electron. This affects all electrons around you. Accelerating something is impossible, so acceleration=change of velocity is part and parcel of the process. You can alter the velocity by changing its magnitude or direction, since velocity and forces are vectors. For example, electrons radiate from a circular particle accelerator even though their velocity is constant because of the continuous change in direction. The magnitude of the velocity change due to forward and backward accelerations or oscillations causes electrons in an antenna, cavity or other structures to radiate.

Two non-moving electrons feel the electrostatic force. They experience the magnetic force when they move at a constant velocity. The magnetic force is an electrostatic force that has been modified by the motions of the particles. It also takes into account the fact that all forces travel at the same speed in vacuum, and not at any instant. The electric and magnetic forces decrease as the inverse square of the distance between two particles. However, the magnetic force is proportional to the relative velocity and normal it. Acceleration is produced when the motion is not constant. This modifies the forces further, creating the radiation force. This decreases as the velocity or acceleration changes and is proportional to the distance between them. Motion and delay in propagation of forces are responsible for all this.

It is clear that the forces between electrons are always there. They can change from static to magnet to radiative depending upon whether the velocity is constant, changing with time, or zero. Radiation does not change the electron’s mass. Because the electron is pushed into the first place by another, it changes its position. This energy provides the energy to radiate (or’magnitate) other electrons and cause them to move. An antenna’s electrons, for instance, get their energy from an electric generator or the driving electronics.