What is impedance in simple terms (electronics or in general)?

Resistors don’t conserve energy as well as the movement of energy through them is pretty straightforward and can be represented with the concept of resistance by itself. In devices with impedances, such as inductors or capacitors for instance, the unit doesn’t only provides some resistance to flow of current, but also stores energy from the current flow and then release it. This adds complexity to the flow. The result of this combination storage and release of energy is what we refer to as impedance. Impedance also can be dependent on the frequencies it’s measured. Therefore, it could be an unrelated number as dependent on frequency.Added To this there are two kinds of energy storage and releasers. They function in various ways. Inductors store energy within magnetic fields and let it out in the event that the field collapses. Capacitors, on the other hand conserve energy in electric fields and can also release energy when the electric field pulls electrons and the field disappears because its energy is converted into electron movement.

In addition, to create confusion, capacitors can also possess magnetic fields as well however the electrostatic effect between plates typically dominates at frequencies below microwave, and inductors may also have a capacitance in between windings, however, there are magnetic field effects that prevail, but not beneath microwave frequency. Above microwave frequencies the discussion shifts to electromagnetic waves, as well as waveguides. The concept of individual capacitors or inductors disappears as both kinds of components mix and are replaced with objects that deal with waves.

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