Why is NH2 an electron donating group but NO2 an electron withdrawing group?

Because it has one pair of electrons on it, NH2 can release electrons.

The NO2 group contains Nitrogen, which has already shared its single pair with an Oxygen-atom. Therefore, it won’t donate any electrons, but it will extract electrons, as I will show you.

The No2 group can create a vacant orbital for Nitrogen by bonding electrons to Oxygen.

This Nitrogen with Vacant orbital can now accept electrons. That is why the No2 group is electron withdrawing.

We hope this helps readers…

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