# In electromagnetic waves, are electric and magnetic field perpendicular to each other in phase or physically?

First, let me highlight some of the doubts that I have about EM waves.

1. An EM wave is generated when a charged particle accelerates. Why is the charge accelerating, and not moving at constant velocity or rest?
2. An acceleration of charged particles generates an electric and magnetic field. What are electric and magnetic fields?
3. The generated fields are perpendicular. Why are the fields generated perpendicular?
4. This is how wave propagation looks. How does the wave actually move forward?
5. Are the EF or MF really able to generate one another?
• The first question is that if there’s a static charge, the field generated is constant. The same holds true for constant velocity charges. After a brief time after initiating, the field generated by the above two cases eventually brings the test charges/dipoles back to equilibrium. What does this mean? What does it mean?
• The second and third questions are not relevant. In reality, the Magnetic field and Electric field are NOT different. They are both manifestations of the SAME FIELD.
• An Electric field is a field that affects the Test Charge and attempts to bring it back to equilibrium. It can be in any direction or orientation.
• When a field affects the Test Dipole (consisting a +ve and -ve charges) it is called a Magnetic field. It attempts to bring the dipole back to equilibrium. It can be in any orientation or direction.
• We now take the direction/orientation of that Electric field (as it was named by us) as areference. You will then know that the electric field’s (as we named it) direction / orientation is an areference.
• As you can see, the same field that affects different quantities in different planes is called by different names. The EF and MF are therefore perpendicular. Each refence EF plane also has a corresponding, perpendicular MF plane.
• Interesting point: If another entity consisted of three interacting charge (say electron, proton, and XX), then the same field, EF, MF would have another name (with reference to EF) that affects the TRIPOLE. Say TRIPOLE field, or TF.
• This also answers the fifth question: The fields don’t generate one another, but they are called different names in different planes.
• Consider an electron spinning around the nucleus to answer the fourth question. The electron is accelerated by the changing direction, or tangential velocity.

Let the wave under observation be moving towards the X direction. When the electron is at right (near X) of proton, it asserts maximum force on a +ve test charge, hence the crest of transverse EM wave in ANY field(EF,MF). This force exertion extends till infinity (magnitude decreases inverse square proportion to distance) only to be altered (magnitude at a point) by changing position of electron.

The force of an electron left of a nucleus is minimal and thus the trough is observed. The rest conditions are the same as before.

If electron is above or beneath the proton (in the Y direction), then the field is at an intermediate value of max/min, which is used as reference zero throughout the science community.